Developed at the University of Lisbon, Dept. of Informatics, by the NLX-Natural Language and Speech Group.

Table of contents


LX-Gram is a grammar for the computational processing of Portuguese. It is being developed under the following major design features:


LX-Gram was developed and is maintained at University of Lisbon by the NLX-Natural Language and Speech Group of the Department of Informatics.


The research and development activities of LX-Gram were partially supported by FCT-Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, of the Portuguese Ministry of Science, and by Instituto Camões, of the Portuguese Ministry of Foreign Affaires, under the research grant PLUS/PLP/50301/2003 for the project GramaXing. The former institution is also acknowledged for its partial support to the development of LX-Gram under the research grant PTDC/PLP/81157/2006 for the project SemanticShare.

The development of LX-Gram has been undertaken in the scope and with the support of the Delph-in international consortium.


When mentioning this grammar, this is the canonical reference to be used:

Implementation report

Detailed documentation (stable version):

Detailed documentation (development version):


To be licensed to use LXGram, send an email message to nlx@di.fc.ul.pt confirming that you accept this license.


Stable version A.4.1: get it here.

Development version 5: get it here.

Contact us

Contact us using the following email address: 'nlx' concatenated with 'at' concatenated with 'di.fc.ul.pt'.

Why LX-Gram?

LX because LX is the "code" name Lisboners like to use to refer to their hometown.


Bender, E. M., Flickinger, D., and Oepen, S. 2002. The Grammar Matrix: An open-source starter-kit for the development of cross-linguistically consistent broad-coverage precision grammars. In Carroll, J., Oostdijk, N., and Sutcliffe, R., editors, Procedings of the Workshop on Grammar Engineering and Evaluation at the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pages 8--14, Taipei, Taiwan.

Callmeier, U. 2000. PET --- A platform for experimentation with eficient HPSG processing techniques. Natural Language Engineering, 6(1):99--108. (Special Issue on Efficient Processing with HPSG).

Copestake, A. 2002. Implementing Typed Feature Structure Grammars. CSLI Publications, Stanford.

Copestake, A., Flickinger, D., Sag, I. A., and Pollard, C. 2005. Minimal Recursion Semantics: An introduction. Journal of Research on Language and Computation, 3(2-3):281{332.

Oepen, S. 2001. [incr tsdb()] --- competence and performance laboratory. User manual. Technical report, Computational Linguistics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.

Pollard, C. and Sag, I. 1987. Information-Based Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 1. CSLI Publications, Stanford.

Pollard, C. and Sag, I. 1994. Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Chicago University Press and CSLI Publications, Stanford.